AUTHOR'S WEBPAGES
This webpage features the research and policy-related work of Dr. Venkatesan Chakrapani, M.D., and his co-researchers on health-related issues of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and Hijras/male-to-female transgender people in India.

 

 

 

 

 
PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Logie, C. H., & Samuel, M. (2017). Syndemics of depression, alcohol use, and victimisation, and their association with HIV-related sexual risk among men who have sex with men and transgender women in India. Global Public Health, 12(2), 250-265. doi:10.1080/17441692.2015.1091024 View BMC Public Health

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Mengle, S., Nelson, R., Rubincam, C., & Kumar, P. (2017). “Like Holding an Umbrella Before It Rains”. Acceptability of Future Rectal Microbicides Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India—A Modified Technology Acceptance Model. Qualitative Health Research. doi:10.1177/1049732317697947

Chakrapani, V., Vijin, P. P., Logie C. H., Shunmugam, M., Sivasubramanian, M., Samuel, M., Newman, P. A. (in press). Understanding how sexual and gender minority stigmas influence depression among trans women and men who have sex with men in India. LGBT Health.

Chakrapani, V., Vijin, P. P., Logie C. H., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Sivasubramanian, M., Samuel, M. (in press). Assessment of a ‘Transgender Identity Stigma’ Scale among Trans Women in India: Findings from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses. International Journal of Transgenderism.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Mengle, S., Varghese, J., Nelson, R., & Bharat, S. (2015). Acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Implementation Challenges Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: A Qualitative Investigation. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 29(10), 569-577. doi:10.1089/apc.2015.0143

Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M., Newman, P. A., Kershaw, T., & Dubrow, R. (2015). HIV Status Disclosure and Condom Use Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men and Hijras (Male-to-Female Transgender People) in India: Implications for Prevention. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, 14(1), 26-44. doi: 10.1080/15381501.2013.859113

Woodford, M. R., Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., & Shunmugam, M. (2015). Barriers and facilitators to voluntary HIV testing uptake among communities at high risk of HIV exposure in Chennai, India. 
Glob Public Health, 1-17. doi:10.1080/17441692.2015.1057757
View BMC Public Health

Newman, P. A., Rubincam, C., Slack, C., Essack, Z., Chakrapani, V., Chuang, D. M., . . . Lindegger, G. (2015). Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study. PLoS One, 10(8), e0135937. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135937

Singh, Y., Aher, A., Shaikh, S., Mehta, S., Robertson, J., & Chakrapani, V. (2014). Gender Transition Services for Hijras and Other Male-to-Female Transgender People in India: Availability and Barriers to Access and Use. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.890559

Newman, P. A., Chakrapani, V., Weaver, J., Shunmugam, M., & Rubincam, C. (2014). Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials among men who have sex with men in Chennai and Mumbai, India. Vaccine, 32(44), 5854-5861. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.043

Yadav, D., Chakrapani, V., Goswami, P., Ramanathan, S., Ramakrishnan, L., George, B., . . . Paranjape, R. S. (2014). Association between alcohol use and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM): findings from a multi-site bio-behavioral survey in India. AIDS and Behavior, 18(7), 1330-1338. doi:10.1007/s10461-014-0699-x

Chakrapani, V., Boyce, P., Newman, P. A., & Row Kavi, A. (2013).Contextual influences on condom use among men who have sex with men in India: subjectivities, practices and risks. Cult Health Sexdoi: 10.1080/13691058.2013.798032 View PubMed

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Singhal, N., Nelson, R., & Shunmugam, M. (2013). If It's Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?": mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India. BMC Public Health, 13, 731. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-731 View BMC Public Health

Ramanathan, S., Chakrapani, V., Ramakrishnan, L., Goswami, P., Yadav, D., Subramanian, T., … Paranjape, R. S. (2013). Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program. BMC Public Health, 13, 827. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-827 View BMC Public Health

Ramanathan, S., Chakrapani, V., Ramakrishnan, L., Goswami, P., Yadav, D., George, B., … Paranjape, R. S. (2013). Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention. Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2013, 7. doi: 10.1155/2013/161085View Hindawi

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Singhal, N., Jerajani, J., & Shunmugam, M. (2012). Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials among men who have sex with men in Chennai and Mumbai, India: a social ecological approach. PLoS One, 7(12), e51080. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051080. View PubMed

Chakrapani, V., Newman P. A., Shunmugam, M., & Dubrow, R. (2011). Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access among kothi-identified men who have sex with men and aravanis (transgender women) in Chennai, India. AIDS Care, 23(12), 1687-1694. doi:10.1080/09540121.2011.582076

Logie, C. H., Newman, P. A., Chakrapani, V., & Shunmugam, M. (2012). Adapting the minority stress model: associations between gender non-conformity stigma, HIV-related stigma and depression among men who have sex with men in South India. Soc Sci Med, 74(8), 1261-1268. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.008 
View PubMed

Woodford, M. R., Newman, P. A., Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M., Kakinami, L. (2011). Correlates of HIV Testing Uptake among Kothi-Identified Men who have Sex with Men in Public Sex Environments in Chennai, India. AIDS and Behavior, 16(1): 53-62.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M. (2008). Secondary HIV Prevention among Kothi-identified MSM in Chennai, India.Culture, Health & Sexuality, 10(4):313-27.

Newman, P A, Chakrapani, V., Cook, C., Shunmugam, M., Kakinami, L. (2008). Determinants of Sexual Risk Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Accessing Public Sex Environments in Chennai, India. Journal of LGBT Health Research, 4(2), 81-87.

Newman, P A, Chakrapani, V., Cook, C., Shunmugam, M., Kakinami, L. (2008). Correlates of paid sex among men who have sex with men in Chennai, India. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 84(6):434-8.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., McLuckie, A., Melwin, F. (2007). Structural violence against Kothi-identified men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: A qualitative investigation. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(4), 346–364.

 

Click here to see  Dr. Chakrapani’s other peer-reviewed publications on people living with HIV, female sex workers, injecting drug users and other populations.


 
BOOK CHAPTERS

Chakrapani, V., Newman P. A., & Noronha, E. (in press). Hijras/Transgender Women and Sex Work in India: From Marginalization to Social Protection. In Nuttbrock (Ed.). Transgender Sex Work & Society. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Chakrapani, V.(2016). Sex Change Operation and Feminizing Procedures for Transgender women in India: Current Scenario and Way Forward. In Arvind Narrain and Vinay Chandran (Eds.). Nothing to Fix: Medicalisation of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: A Human Rights Resource Book. New Delhi: SAGE Yoda Press. https://www.sagepub.in/books/Book251842

Chakrapani, V. & L Ramki Ramakrishnan. (2005). Bisexual Community – India (pp. 152-153). In Robyn Ochs and Sarah Rowley (Eds.). Getting Bi: Voices of bisexual around the world. Bisexual Resource Center: Boston

 

RESEARCH REPORTS

 

Sheikh, D., Chakrapani, V., & Narrain, A. (2016). Legal gender recognition in India: a legal, policy and practice review. Report commissioned by VHS-India and UNDP.

Narrain, A., Chandran, V., & Chakrapani, V. (2015). Legal and Policy Issues in India related to Proposals for Gender Incongruence in WHO’s ICD-11. Report commissioned by the World Health Organisation (WHO), Geneva.

Chakrapani, V., & Bharat, S. (2014). Getting to Zero? A National Survey on HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Urban India. Delhi: UNDP India. http://www.in.undp.org/content/india/en/home/library/hiv_aids/getting-to-zero/

Bharat, S., & Chakrapani, V.  (2014).  Research Compendium -  HIV-related Stigma Research in India: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Recommendations. Delhi: UNDP India. http://www.in.undp.org/content/dam/india/docs/HIV_and_development/UNDP_StigmaCompendium_
final.pdf

Chakrapani, V., Samuel, M., Shunmugam, M., & Sivasubramanian, M. (2013).Modelling the Impact of Stigma on Depression and Sexual Risk Behaviours of Men who have Sex with Men and Hijras/Transgender women in India: Implications for HIV and Sexual Health Programmes. Jointly published by Madras Christian College, the Humsafar Trust and C-SHaRP, with support from ICMR.PDF Document

Chakrapani, V. & Narrain, A. (2013). Legal recognition of gender identity of transgender people in India: Current situation and potential options. © UNDP India: New Delhi.  PDF Document [C-SHaRP]

Chakrapani, V. (2012). The Case of Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board: Insights for Developing Practical Models of Social Protection Programmes for Transgender People in India. © UNDP India: New 
PDF Document [C-SHaRP]

Chakrapani, V., Boyce P, Dhanikachalam D. (Sep 2011). Women partners of men who have sex with men in India. India ‘MSM situation paper’ series – Technical Brief 2. DFID AIDS Technical Assistance Support Team (of Futures Group International Pvt. Ltd., India) for National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO), India. PDF Document

Chakrapani, V., Boyce P, Dhanikachalam D. (Sep 2011). Sexual violence against men who have sex with men in India: Intersections with HIV. India ‘MSM situation paper’ series – Technical Brief 3. DFID AIDS Technical Assistance Support Team (of Futures Group International Pvt. Ltd., India) for National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO), India.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P.A., Shanmugam, M., Michael, S. (2008).Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Chennai, India.Indian Network for People living with HIV and AIDS (INP+), India.
Report_ART_MSM_Aravanis_Nov_08_VC_UD.pdf

Chakrapani, V., Murali Shanmugam, Sandy Michael, Jaikumar Velayudham, Peter A Newman. (2008). HIV Testing Barriers and Facilitators among Populations at-risk in Chennai, India. Indian Network for People living with HIV (INP+), Chennai, India.
HIV Testing Study_Report_Final_Jul_08_VC.pdf
[Note: This is a Qualitative Study among  Men who have Sex with Men, Injecting Drug Users, Aravanis/Transwomen, and Sex Workers]

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P.A., Mhaprolkar, H., and Kavi, A.R.,Sexual and Social Networks of MSM and Hijras in India: A qualitative study. The Humsafar Trust, Mumbai, India. Supported by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), India. April 2007. 
(Report_SxlNeworks_MSM_Hijras_Apr_07.pdf)

Chakrapani, V., Shanmugam, M., Newman, P.A., Dubrow, R., Satpathy, A., & Abraham, K. K. (2007). Sexual and Reproductive Health of People living with HIV in India: A mixed methods study.Indian Network for People living with HIV (INP+), Chennai, India. 
(SRH_PLHA_Report_INP_May_07.pdf)
(Note: Includes findings on sexual and reproductive health of MSM and Hijras living with HIV in India)

Chakrapani, V. Needs assessment of HIV-positive Kothi-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India. Report commissioned by Social Welfare Association for Men (SWAM) and Indian Network for People living with HIV/AIDS (INP+) with support from USAID/FHI. Oct 2004. 
(ReportNeedsAsmt_SWAM_INP.pdf)

Chakrapani, V., Kavi, A.R., Ramakrishnan, L.R., et al. HIV Prevention among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in India : Review of Current Scenario and Recommendations. April 2002 (HTML Version) 
(MSM_HIV_India.pdf)

Chakrapani, V., Priya Babu, Timothy Ebenezer. Hijras in sex work face discrimination in the Indian health-care system. Research for Sex Work. p12-14. June 2004.
(Hijras_Discrimination_JSW_Chakrapani.pdf)

 

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS


Chakrapani, V., Mittal, S., Gupta, V., Rajesh Kumar. (February 2015). HIV care cascade for key populations in Chandigarh. AIDSCON-5, Chandigarh.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Mengle, S. (September 2015). Acceptability of new HIV prevention technologies among MSM in India: Implications for combination HIV prevention. 39th National Conference of IASSTD & AIDS, ASTICON-2015, Coimbatore, India.

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P.A., Mengle, S., Shinde, D., Dakshinamoorthy, D.K., Nelson, R., & Shunmugam, M. (2014, July). Mental models of placebo and vaccine-induced seropositivity among MSM in India: implications for interventions to counter preventive misconception among prospective HIV vaccine trial participants. Poster presentation at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
[ Click here for the abstract ] [Download e-poster]

Aryal, M., Samuel, M., Shah, B., Shunmugam, M., & Chakrapani, V. (2014, July). Extent of stigma, discrimination and violence faced by metis (male-to-female transgender people) in Nepal: implications for HIV prevention and care. Poster presentation at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
[ Click here for the abstract ] [Download e-poster]

Subramanian, T., Mehendale, S., Dhingra, N., Chakrapani, V., Selvaraj, E., Noronha, E., & Narang, A. (2014, July). Mapping and size estimation of male-to-female transgender community in 17 states of India: First level findings at the country level. Oral poster discussion at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
[ Click here for the abstract ] [Download Power Point]

Chakrapani, V. (2013, November).  Health system barriers faced by Indian Transgender people in accessing HIV/STI prevention and treatment services, and what can be done. Oral presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [Download Presentation]

Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M., Nelson, R., & Newman, P. A.  (2013, November).  Assessment of a four-item tool to measure discrimination faced by MSM from health care providers. E-poster discussion at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [Download e-poster]

Chakrapani, V., Logie, C. H., Shunmugam, M., & Newman, P. A.  (2013, November).  Assessment of ‘Transgender identity stigma’ scale among Indian male-to-female transgender people. E-poster presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
[Download e-poster]

Shunmugam, M., Nelson, R., Singhal, N., Chakrapani, V., & Newman, P.A.  (2013, November).  Associations between HIV-related stigma, sexual risk and alcohol use among MSM in India.   E-poster presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [Download e-poster]

Chakrapani, V., Newman, P.A., Singhal, N., Jerajani, J., & Shunmugam, M. (2013, November).  Mental Models of HIV Vaccines and Clinical Trials among High  Risk Men who have Sex with Men in India. E-poster presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
[Download e-poster]

Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M., Eswarlal, A., Chawla, U., Narang, A., & Bharat, S. (2013, November). Critical Review of HIV-related Stigma Literature in India: Insights and Recommendations. E-poster presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [Download e-poster]

Chakrapani, V., Narrain, A., & Noronha, E. (2103, November). Legal recognition of gender identity of male-to-female trans people in India: Community perspectives. E-poster presentation at the 11th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [Download e-poster]

Chakrapani, V. (2013, July). Influence of HIV-related and Sexual Minority Stigma on Mental Health and Sexual Risk Behaviors of MSM and Transgender people in India. 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.http://pag.ias2013.org/session.aspx?s=71#3

Chakrapani, V., Boyce, P., Dhanikachalam, D., Manila, N.R. (2012). Women partners of men who have sex with men (MSM) in India: preventing HIV transmission and promoting early HIV diagnosis and treatment
http://pag.aids2012.org/Abstracts.aspx?SID=238&AID=12147

Chakrapani, V. (2011, May). HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Hijras (transgender people) in India: Current Situation and National Responses. Invited presentation for the Visiting International Scholar Seminar at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on HIV/AIDS (CIRA) at the Yale
University.http://cira.med.yale.edu/bulletin/Archives/04_26_11.html

Chakrapani, V. (2011, March). Conceptualising and measuring stigma and its impact on MSM/Hijras in India: Adapted  Minority Stress Model. Invited presentation at the national seminar on Stigma and HIV at Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai, India.

Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M, Newman, P. A. (2009). HIV Social Research among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and Hijras/Transwomen in India: Current Status and Way forward. First National Consultation on HIV and Social Research. Mumbai, India.

Chakrapani, V. (2009, August). Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention. Presentaton at the satellite meeting in the 9th ICAAP, Bali, Indonesia.

Chakrapani, V. (2008, August). Development of Positive Prevention in India. International AIDS Conference, Mexico City, Mexico.

Chakrapani, V. , Hemangi Mhaprolkar, Peter A Newman, Vivek R. Anand, Ashok Row Kavi. Social hierarchy, Community norms, and HIV risk among Hijra (transwomen) communities in India. The Humsafar Trust, India, and University of Toronto, Canada. [WEPE0708] XVII International AIDS Conference, Mexico, August 3-8, 2008. 
Hijras_Cmty Norms_HST-Mexico_Aug08.pdf

[This presentation is from the research report available at - Report_Sxl Neworks_MSM_Hijras_Apr_07.pdf]

Chakrapani, V. , Hemangi Mhaprolkar, Peter A Newman, Vivek R. Anand, Ashok Row Kavi. Contextual influences on condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. The Humsafar Trust, India, and University of Toronto, Canada. [WEPE0745] XVII International AIDS Conference, Mexico, August 3-8, 2008. 
MSM_Condom_HST_Mexico_Aug 08.pdf

[This presentation is from the research report available at - Report_Sxl Neworks_MSM_Hijras_Apr_07.pdf]

Chakrapani, V., Velayudham, J. Whether ICD-10/DSM-IV diagnostic guidelines and WPATH treatment guidelines on ‘Gender Identity Disorders’ (GID) are relevant to India?: Discussion on the need for ‘India-specific’ guidelines for GID. 8th Annual National Conference of Indian Psychiatrists Society (ANCIPS-2008). Jan 3 – 6, 2008. 
(GID_India_IPS_ANCIPS_08.pdf)

Shunmugam, M., Chakrapani, V.,  Newman, P. A.,  McLuckie, A.Structural violence and HIV prevention among Kothi-identified men who have sex with men in Chennai. 8th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (ICAAP-8), Colombo, SriLanka. 2007. 
(StructuralViolence_India_MSM.pdf)

Chakrapani, V., Shanmugam, M., Newman, P.A., Balasubramaniam, S., Kurian, A. Disclosure of HIV status by HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to their sexual partners: implications for counseling practices and intervention design.XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, 13-18 Aug 2006. (Disclosure_HIV_MSM_India_Toronto_06.pdf)

Chakrapani, V., Newman,P.A., Shunmugam, S. Challenges for Secondary HIV Prevention among Kothi-identified Men who have Sex with Men in Chennai, India. International Association for the Study of Sex, Culture and Society (IASSCS) Conference, San Francisco, June 21-24, 2005. 
(MSM_Sec_HIV_Prevn_IASSCS_2005.pdf)

Srinivasan, B., Dorairaj V.S., Chakrapani, V. Sexual Behavior, STD and HIV Prevalence among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) attending a Government STD Clinic in Chennai, India. XV International AIDS Conference 2004, Bangkok, Thailand, July 11-16, 2004. 
(STD_HIV_Preval_MSM_GH_Chennai_04.pdf)

Chakrapani, V. Needs assessment of HIV-positive Kothi-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India. Report commissioned by Social Welfare Association for Men (SWAM) and Indian Network for People living with HIV/AIDS (INP+) with support from USAID/FHI. Oct 2004. 
(Needs_Asst_MSMLHA_Chennai_2005.pdf)
(See the full report - Report Needs Asmt_SWAM_INP.pdf)

Chakrapani, V. 'Issues faced by HIV-infected MSM in the Indian health care system: Focus on Discrimination by Omission'. Feb 2004. (HIV_MSM_Venky_Discrimn_Feb.ppt)

Chakrapani, V. Methodological And Ethical Issues in Conducting Behavioral Research among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in India. XV International AIDS Conference 2004, Bangkok, Thailand, July 2004
(Method_Ethical_issues_MSM_research.ppt)

P Mahalingam, R Watts, J Monica, E Sundari, S Balasubramaniam, V Chakrapani. Stigma and Discrimination affect access to Medical Care of HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) In Chennai, India. XV International AIDS Conference 2004, Bangkok, Thailand, July 2004
(Stigma_Discrimn_HIV_MSM_Chennai.ppt)

Chakrapani, V., Managing STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) & Transgender (male-to-female) persons attending a community-based clinic: Lessons Learnt. Second Tamil Nadu STD Medical Officers seminar. Kodaikanal, India. June 2004.
(Kodai_STI_JUNE19.ppt)

Chakrapani, V., Timothy Ebinezer, Anjali Fernandes, Dhanam B.Access to and use of health care services for Aravanis/Hijra/Aravani (male-to-female transgender/transsexual) community in Chennai, South India. XIV International AIDS Conference 2002, Barcelona, Spain, July 7-12, 2002. 
(Aravani_HealthAccess_Bar.ppt)

Chakrapani, V., Priya Babu, Timothy E. HIV-seropositive Hijras in sex work suffer triple discrimination in the Indian health care system. III International Conference on AIDS. AIDS India 2000, Chennai, December 2001. 
(HIV_Aravanis_Discrimn270203.ppt)

Chakrapani, V.,Ganapathy, M., Fernandes, S.D., Johnson, M., BalaSubramaniam, M.P. Consistency Of Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) With Different Types Of Sex Partners. 24th National Conference of Indian Association of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (IASSTD) & AIDS and 11th SEAWP IUSTI Regional Meeting. Oct 2000, Chandigarh, India. 
(MSM_Condom_Consist_CD_27_2_3.ppt)

Chakrapani, V., Health care issues faced by men who have sex with men (MSM) and Hijras/Aravanis in India. Aug 2004.
(HealthIssues_MSM_Hijras_India.ppt)

Chakrapani, V. Male sex work in Chennai [India]. Presented at the first national conference of the network of male sex workers in Trivandrum, India. March 2003. (Male_SexWork_Chennai.ppt)

Chakrapani, V.  Aravanis [Hijras/Aravanis] in sex work in Chennai.March 2003 (Aravani_SexWork_Chennai.ppt)